THE ‘SILENT’ TUDOR

Henry FitzRoy - The curse of being born with a silver spoon in the mouth!
Henry FitzRoy – The curse of being born with a silver spoon in the mouth!

“The Daughter of Aragon wreathes patiently, vigilant through the parted glares of the palatial crimson covertures, with every word that is pouring into her ear tasting like venom…

‘Henry FitzRoy, you are by the order and permission of His Majesty, King Henry, today created Duke of Richmond and of Somerset, and Earl of Nottingham.’

Her royal husband triumphantly puts a bantam crown on the dwarfish blonde head and seats him in the affectionate chair meant for the consort to the English Throne. The very quarter of her honor and power. Burning in resentment, cursing her ill fated womb and her ill fated tryst with destiny, she stands watching, avowed to rebel against this ‘bastardly fortune’  that is struck against her pride. Hours later in the Queen’s chambers…

‘I see His Majesty’s bastard son is made a duke. Does this mean that he is next in rank to His Majesty? Next in line to the throne? Above my daughter?’

The Spanish wrath blows like a hurricane against Wolsey, and for the first time, all his diplomacy and cunningness corner at their wits end. The Kingly furor can be persuaded to calmness, but what of the venomous queenly ire, backed by Papal blessing and familial ties to the Holy Roman Emperor? Nonetheless, he resorts to his politician’s skill in an attempt to dampen the intensity of the situation.

‘Yes. Technically.’ Katherine’s piercing Spanish stare plunges him into a fray: which is better? A shoulder without a head or a series of guilt ridden encounters everyday at court whenever the Queen’s train passes by? Preferably, the latter. Hesitantly, he compliments that is spoken-

‘He is set above all others. Except for a legitimate son.’

The Queen’s eyes flashes lethally at his demure but smug countenance. A nice pike to scorn at her Achilles’ heel. She digests this remark against her womanhood and in a dignified resistant manner attends to the conversation that is being directed to degrade her person.

‘His Majesty loves our daughter. He has shown it on many occasions. I cannot believe he wishes to place his bastard child above her.’

The Lord Chancellor’s raised eyebrows breaks her denial. What is a princess to an intrigued clad throne? What is a princess even if she is of regal Tudor blood sired by the Daughter of Aragon?”[1]

˜


Yes. No doubt, a rather fanciful re-depiction of the events concerning the bestowal of fortune on an acknowledged royal bastard in a glamorously successful [yet pitifully and shockingly historically inaccurate!] drama directed to evoke a sympathetic measure of élan from an audience from all walks of life and time. But the scene is a true mirror of the age when “noblemen of all sorts as well as kings saw it as their duty to”[2] give unhesitant recognition to their paternity in illegitimate births, more so of sons whose line, if long in divine favor, sealed the ‘ruling blood’ to the altar of ‘reigning’ royalty for generations to come. The notorious and magnificent Henry VIII was no exception to this rule; though no Tudor scholar will raise a finger against the fact that this drastic step of acknowledging Henry FitzRoy was a controversial move in the conservative tradition-addicted Tudor realm, further aggravated by its intercourse with Catholic Spain, however was it the desperate bid of an anointed crown to secure the survival of his bloodline, in face of his vain biological destiny and his failure as a Parens Patriae to his subjects.

Henry FitzRoy. Henry – after his father’s Christian name and FitzRoy – the old Norman-French surname for ‘the son of a King’.  Born to mistress, Lady Elizabeth ‘Bessie’ Blount on 15 Jun 1519, far away from the prying eyes of the Court at the Augustinian priory of St. Lawrence at Blackmore, Essex, he remained in history the only ratified natural child of Henry VIII. True to his origin, he would be “well brought up like a Prince’s child”[3] and furnished to keep the elaborate state thought commensurate with his position. According to the Archdeacon of Durham, the boy grew into “a child of excellent wisdom and towardness and for his good and quick capacity, retentiveness memory, virtuous inclination to all honor, humanity and goodness… hard it would be to find any creature living twice his age, able or worthy to be compared to him.”[4] He occupied a mere span of seventeen years in the leaf of the Tudor Dynasty before sinking into abysmal obscurity; nonetheless the consequences of his very existence outran in importance those of his father’s more prominent ‘temporal bastards’ –  the Princesses, Mary and Elizabeth.

The 'Fortunate' Mistress.
Blessie Bessie Blount – The ‘Fortunate’ Mistress.

From the first, bastard though he was, King Henry VIII would groom him for kingship. History notes the attempts made to give him and his mother their ‘much deserved’ social recognition and the favors bestowed upon them – taking immense fondness on his gender, his royal father advanced him since the tender age of six, from the Knight of the Garter through the Earldom of Nottingham and Dukedom of Richmond and Somerset to the countless titles of Admiral of England-Ireland-Normandy, Warden of the Cinque Ports, Lieutenant of Ireland and commissioned him an annuity (£4,845) that made him the wealthiest in the Kingdom after the Sovereign. The title of ‘Duke’ since its inception, had ravished a royal aura; conspicuously, the Duchy of Somerset had strong Beaufort connections and the Dukedom of Richmond had been a primogenetic possession since the time of Henry VII.[5] This grant of a double dukedom having reference to the charismatic Tudor founders, inferred unprecedented honor, besides striking a chord among courtiers. His mother received a somewhat similar treatment: she was honorably married off to Sir Gilbert Talboys of Goltho and a number of rich manors of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire were assigned to her for life by Acts of Parliament. The beloved bastard was given his own extensive household of princely status at Durham Place in the Strand, stacked with leading personalities of his time – Cardinal Wolsey [Godfather], Richard Croke, John Palsgrave, and Edward Seymour. Ambassadors were instructed to refer to the King’s son as “one who is near to his blood and of excellent qualities, and yet may easily by the king’s means be exalted to higher things”. [6] Yet what remained hidden from the eye was the tremendous impact of his male sex on the power struggle characterizing the Henrician monarchy. Indeed, Henry FitzRoy’s circumstantial life could be read, in the light of royal misogyny, as the bountiful tale woven by the virtue of masculinity in the earliest chapters of modern England.

To boast of a healthy living ‘man’ heir of blood was a rare banquet for Henry VIII, given the much contrasted ‘happy’ commencements and ‘distressed’ closings of each of his marriage knots. The 1509 Imperial-Tudor political alliance was also the instance of a joyful union between the cultivated Spanish infanta and the strappingly handsome Tudor King: the handsomest prince in the entire Christendom. [7]By 1516, however, the marital landscape darkened as Henry’s hopes of a crop of robust Tudor sons with Katherine of Aragon were never fulfilled.[8] All that resulted was the frail Princess Mary and consequently, the King’s carnal attentions lit upon the ‘reformist’ seductress at court – Anne Boleyn who flaunted the ‘fresh fertility’ that his queen no longer possessed. In the midst of a tempestuous English Reformation, Anne in 1533 brought into Henry’s world the terrible disappointment of another daughter: the Princess Elizabeth.[9] After delivering a deformed stillborn and braving two miscarriages, the whore Temptress was tried on the ‘flimsiest’ combination of evidence (treason, adultery, witchcraft and incest!), and sent to the Tower and to the French sword’s scaffold in 1536. The English Reformation signaled the rise of Boleyn and the fall of Aragon, wherein the distinct benchmark was interestingly provided by the birth of FitzRoy in 1519. The success of siring a ‘son’ re-doubled the King’s frustration and disappointment for now he knew that he was physically capable of fathering male progeny, and the fault didn’t lie with him! For proving the King’s fertility, Bessie Blount prompted a popular saying of the Henrician era – “Bless ‘ee, Bessie Blount”.[10] Without warning, the pro-creative constitution of the fleshy patch that was to sow the seed was mercilessly dragged under a misgiving floodlight. And inevitably there arose the urgent need to change the ‘soil’ beds.

Henry VIII - when his personal 'shame' became a political concern.
Henry VIII – when his personal ‘shame’ became a political concern.

Coupled with this frustration was the constant dread that revolved around painful reminders of his own mortality. The situation became such, that even one bastard son proved to be dwarfish for the too giant a Tudor throne. Robert Hutchinson in his acclaimed work ‘Young Henry’ effectively lists the incidences, where death looked the King in the eye and stirred in him a quickened urgency of a male heir. On March 10, 1524, Henry VIII suffered a perilous jousting accident against Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk and though he escaped death by a hair’s breadth – the fall branded him with a cerebral injury and a varicose ulcer. Close at heel, in 1525, he made a narrow escape while hawking near Hitchin in Hertfordshire – he would have drowned in a water – filled ditch on a broken lance had not his footman, Edward Moody conducted the timely rescue of “leap[ing] into the water and lift[ing] up his head which was fast[ened] in the clay”[11]. The fourth pandemic of sweating sickness in 1528 drove the ruler to the more remote of his palaces, away from the ravages of the ‘sweat’ that purported some of his prominent courtiers.[12] In all occasion, however God “of His Goodness” preserved the Tudor Rose but the question of succession became more Delphic, and conjectural with each trickle of sand in the timepiece. Would Death claim him before he had his son and heir? Would he die laughed at, as the impotent boisterous beast, by the critical contempt mongers of Europe?  One can almost sense the seething desperation of Henry in his bones – and feel the repercussions of the vulnerable utterance, even if only in Jonathan Rhys Meyers’ dramatic voice – “What if I had died? What would I have left? I have no heir, only a daughter and a bastard son. You understand, Wolsey? The Tudor Dynasty…gone! All my father’s work finished! And it’s all my fault!”[13]

Katherine of Aragon - Queen in all but the honour of the 'Mother of the heir to the throne'.
Katherine of Aragon – Queen in all but the honour of the ‘Mother of the heir to the throne’.

The most weighted of the countless ‘If’s in Henry VIII’s life, however would stand unresolved even with the procuring of the virgin land as the fault lay with the seed! For no one who was a parcel of Henry’s epoch dared to probe into the possibility of biological mal-functioning and suggest of His Majesty’s ‘fruitlessness’. Thankfully what was treason to Henry’s courtiers had passed though trying galleries of observation and ratiocination to adorn the priceless attire of science and rationale in the modern equivalence of Time. Consequently, there have been speculations that Katherine of Aragon’s tragic record of one miscarriage and four still borns was due to Henry having had a balanced translocation of his chromosomes. His sperm cells might have had extra genetic material which caused recurrent miscarriages and spontaneous abortions. Equally were blamed Queen Katherine’s natal problems that were probably caused by viral infection and nutritional balances. Given the lack of hygiene and the unhealthy diet of the period she might have suffered from Listeroisis which could have triggered her ‘unfortunate’ births. This also manifested itself in meningitis or pneumonia which possibly killed the princes born in 1511-1513.[14] FitzRoy was born between Mary and Elizabeth and unlike their changing fortunes – his remained intact till death. If Katherine of Aragon’s child bearing logbook tore down Mary from her father’s affections then Anne Boleyn’s similar woeful performance cemented his place in Henry’s heart. Anne Boleyn might have been rhesus negative against Henry’s rhesus positive blood for which after her first born, she never bore a living child.[15] Experts have convicted Henry VIII of having been a carrier of syphilis – a disease he passed on to his wives and their fetuses. [16] In Henry’s day, these mysteries were never unveiled and in face of his twenty seven years of marriage and two daughters, FitzRoy’s very existence must have been a miracle. In the context of Henry’s defective reproductive career – his birth was a non comprehendible phenomenon. And even if it was not, it was sure treated as one!

Anne Boleyn - She 'lost' her head for the Gloriana she gave...
Anne Boleyn – She ‘lost’ her head for the Gloriana she gave…

The events that followed FitzRoy’s birth were effective in spelling the doomed quietus for Katherine, who in turn, by her ‘fitful arrogant resistance’, brought down her daughter with her as well. The great public festive at FitzRoy’s birth and elevation was bitter gall to the Queen; since all her hopes for the future were now concentrated on her lawfully conceived daughter – she could hardly fail to feel mortified at this celebration of the male bastard. She lost her outward composure of smiling countenance and submission but the novelty of it did not make it any more agreeable.  The Venetian Ambassador commented: “The Queen resents the earldom and dukedom conferred on the King’s natural son and remains dissatisfied at the instigation, it is said, of three of her Spanish ladies, her chief counselors. So the King had dismissed them (from) the court – a strong measure but the Queen was obliged to submit and to have patience.” [17]Also to many, it seemed that his decision to send Princess Mary with her own household away to Ludlow was likely connected with his annoyance.[18] He could bear a son – then why couldn’t he bear one with Katherine? He must have often pondered over what seemed like a curse on his marriage, making his mind vulnerable to the very thought of divorce to end this ‘sinful’ amalgamation – a pursuit made successfully in 1533. However, if FitzRoy had triggered the immediate cause of the Royal Marriage Crisis, at a later date, he was posed as the prevention of the annulment, strangely by Papal authority itself. He was a useful knave in thawing Henry’s resolves – a conclusion demonstrated from the proposed special dispensation concerning the marriage of FitzRoy and Mary Tudor, his half-sister.[19] Though a canonical impediment, and a slur on moral probity  – incest was deliberately kept on the card to prevent the ‘greater marriage’ annulment of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon and hence provide the deathblow to Henry’s recent break with the Roman Catholic Church. A little lamb butchered, but a stance fulfilling duel purposes – the proposed marriage would serve to strengthen FitzRoy’s claim to the throne, placing the much desired male heir at the precipice of the Crown and in effect disarm Henry VIII to compromise the nullity suit he was pursuing for the sake of his dynastic ambition. The marriage never took place: instead FitzRoy married Mary Howard, daughter of Duke Thomas Howard of Norfolk in 1533; his death left the marriage unconsummated. In fact the effect of FitzRoy on Henry’s and Katherine’s marriage could be an example of sweeping assumption – it didn’t seem too fulsome a verdict on the already crumbling marital status of the royal couple at the time.

As for Anne Boleyn’s apocalypse, FitzRoy was no aliquot. Her deplorable parturition business no doubt contributed to the further endearment of the ‘Prince’ but in all he stood free of blame. Instead, he was perceived as the victim of her malicious intrigues. He was himself told by his father that he and his sister (the Lady Mary) “owed God a great debt” “for having escaped the hands of that accursed whore who had determined to poison them”, after successfully poisoning Queen Katherine to death. He sat through the trial and execution of the bearer of his poisoned chalice. His untimely demise in the month following Anne Boleyn’s execution reinforced the opinions of Henry and others who “thought he was privily poisoned by the means of Queen Anne and her brother, Lord Rochford for he pinned inwardly in his body long before he died. God knoweth the truth thereof.” In fact FitzRoy’s final illness was short and unexpected and developed far too late to have been the consequence of poison.[20]

Mary I - Braving all odds against the paternal wrath of royalty.
Mary I – Braving all odds against the paternal wrath of royalty.

The extravagant kindness showed to the royal bastard, as stated by modern historians, was somewhat justified under circumstances. The heir, rather the heiress was Princess Mary in a time when England was yet to know an Elizabeth or a Victoria; and to make matters worse – Henry VIII had neither surviving younger brother nor any close male relations from his father’s family. Equally significant, as the sole surviving child of Henry VII, he was not overshadowed by any other male relations who could be called up to share the burden of government in the King’s name.[21] This childlessness and lack of male membership in the family imposed on the King the importance of his bastard son. Evidently, being the King of England’s “Worldly Jewel” earned him the attractiveness that onlookers sought to observe and work upon for their selfish causes. The Henrician obsession was previously traced in the titles volunteered in the royal pamper of his manhood – the depth of the conviction, however could only be understood in the light of the extra generous concessions that the King pondered over in acceding to the ‘Prince’ – dangerously favored thoughts, which for the mercy of the cautious hawking of the outstanding Privy Council, never materialized. For instance, after FitzRoy was created Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1529, the King planned to crown him the monarch of that country.[22] The alarmed Privy Counselors barged in the scenario to be the voice of reason in the royal world of blind paternity: clearly a separate Kingdom of Ireland, whose ruler was not that of England, would create another impertinent King of Scotland – an intemperate cousin waging ‘whimsical invasions’ at the borders and wasting effective military resources in the process of his child’s play. Nevertheless, being the level-headed diplomat he was, the suggestion was not without a sound base. The Desmond situation was prevalent in Ireland since 1520s and FitzRoy’s elevation as Lord Lieutenant marked a break in the earlier policies that Henry’s Government espoused to resolve the Irish deadlock. Amidst a phase of uncertainty, peace was ensured and to some enthusiasts like Henry himself, placing the ‘Prince’ permanently at the helm of the troublesome Irish affairs appeared as a ready cure to the political sore. Oddly enough, the Young Duke of Richmond never left the nuclei of the Tudor realm in his lifetime: he never visited Ireland, and was merely a nominal head of the realm; under whose plagiarized masquerade the Lord Secretary of England executed the desired diplomacy.

Elizabeth I - The queenly bastard of the 'Concubine'!
Elizabeth I – The queenly bastard of the ‘Concubine’!

Visibly, he weathered the difficult years of the Reformation far better than either of his sisters. As mentioned above, the sex was exclusive to him and so was the benevolence donated upon the ducal mazard.  In the Christmas of 1529, Fitzroy was given a suite of rooms at Windsor that were usually used by the Prince of Wales, whereas Princess Mary as Princess of Wales was given a less important suite[23]; this showed how beloved the illegitimate was. By the time of his death in July 1536, he had retained all the privileges worthy of his princely title; a stark contrast to his royal siblings who by then, had felt the pat of royal coquettishness as well as the pinch of bastardization.

The climax of Henry’s indulgence was reached in 30 July 1536 when the proposal of a new Act of Succession was put before the Parliament nominating FitzRoy heir to the throne. The Imperial ambassador Eustace Chapuys  wrote to Emperor Charles V in a letter dated 8 July 1536, that Henry VIII had made a statute allowing him to nominate a successor. [24] There is no evidence that Henry intended to proclaim him his heir, but in theory the Act would have permitted him to do so if he wished.[25] Sadly, Mistress Luck had discarded the royal bastard by then: he died of consumption (a suppurating pulmonary infection), leaving behind an unprotected ‘heirless’ crown. Such was Henry VIII’s devotion towards his son, that even after his death; he left no stone unturned to see to his comfort. Disgruntled with the funeral arrangement the Duke of Norfolk administered for his beloved son, the King questioned the ‘honor’ of the inhumation and soon the Duke was destined for the Tower. [26]

As Thomas Fuller reported – “Well was it for them that Henry FitzRoy his natural son … was dead, otherwise (some suspect) had he survived King Edward the Sixth, we might presently have heard of a King Henry the Ninth, so great was his father’s affection and so unlimited his power to prefer him.”[27] Like Princess Mary in the Welsh Kingdom, FitzRoy was the titular administrator of the English Northern Frontiers and being constituted for his father’s delegate, he was following in tradition by which English Kings ruled through the ceremonial installation of their offspring. Many, including Queen Katherine herself, saw this as precedence imparted to the bastard above the King’s lawful issue but discretion was tactfully maintained to show that Mary’s position remained undemoted by the ‘developments’. Princess Mary was treated in the likes of the “Princess of Wales”, though she was never formally given the title and her ‘rule’ in Wales (the traditional household of the heir to the throne) was proof of her eventual succession.[28] The question of FitzRoy’s accession came up in 1536 when both Princesses Mary and Elizabeth stood bastardized and Edward VI was yet to be born. The environment of these circumstances was trying for the health of the boy was already a serious concern and because Henry VIII was hesitant in his policy towards FitzRoy. Hitherto, the ‘Prince’ had been given prominence over all the Dukes created except those born legitimately of the King’s body. That way he couldn’t challenge the position of Henry’s lawful children by any third marriage: that glorious string of sons that Jane Seymour would surely produce. This was undoubtedly demonstrative of Henry VIII’s cogent confidence in his third wife’s reproductivity and his subsequent dynastic security. But the moment, he raised the question of his bastard’s succession he jeopardized the roster of the throne’s claimants. Why the question of FitzRoy’s succession when his male heirs were on the way? The cause could only be assumed. Did Henry fear that he would have another catastrophic obstetric career with Jane Seymour? Was he that aware of his ‘male’ barrenness that he decided to make the best of the situation with what he got? So, was it as evermore – “make hay while the sun shines”?

Albeit, FitzRoy was viewed as a substitute of the ‘blue moon’ male heir and Henry was merely following well known precedents of bastardization – then why so much fuss and public hoopla about a bastard? There was no stigma attached to royal bastards – even those born in adultery – in those days and owning them would not normally have had “manifold catastrophic effects”[29]. The royal proudly shared their identity with their respective lovechildren and there were good pragmatic reasons for that. Natural sons could help to enforce the sovereign’s authority and assist him in Government, as Young FitzRoy did when he was appointed to preside over the Council of the North in an area Henry would visit only once in his lifetime; later FitzRoy would use his influence on his father’s behalf in the remote Welsh Marches – a region in which the King never set foot on! Royal bastards could also be useful in making advantageous marriage alliances to gain land, loyalty and financial gain. A king’s sons could serve as commanders in war or in the diplomatic field or as channels of patronage at court. The Duke of Richmond was also conducted through these experiments: his public exaltation, for example, was done keeping in mind his marriageability; his enhanced status enabled the availability of a full blown European princess. The Church and society at large expected a man to provide for his bastards and help them to their way in the world. Defaulting on this was generally regarded as a moral failure.[30] Henry VIII had more than fulfilled his responsibility in this regard when it came to FitzRoy; for never before had an English royal bastard been showered such lavishness. It is of utmost significance to mention here that Henry’s other alleged bastards, apart from the Princesses, like Henry and Catherine Carey, Thomas Stucley, Richard Edwards, John Perrot and Ethelreda Malte[31] never had the fortune to taste the kingly ardor. These public motifs had personal propellers. For Henry VIII, the bastard ‘son’ was the living proof of his virility – his lack of male heir was a slur upon his manhood, hence he certainly abandoned all discretion and openly acknowledged the boy. It seemed reasonable for such a deprived man to need “all the children he could lay claim to”. Moreover, Henry’s pride and rivalry with Francis I of France might have required him to do so now he had a son, since he had stood godfather to Francis’s second son Henry in 1519, who was named after him.[32]

Nonetheless, for all his utility and importance no history book mentions this ‘Happy Prince’ of Tudordom as a being marked out in records by the strength of his own accord. Fate dealt Henry VIII the cruelest irony – man felt no need to remember this valued Duke, who overshadowed incessantly in his lifetime, his famous sisters who suffered the wrath of Henrician misogyny. Few like Kelly Hart, Heather Hobden and Beverley A. Murphy had cared to dedicate a book to him, whereas others such as Alison Weir, Antonia Fisher and similar had mentioned him in passing, dismissing him as a mere fortunate paragraph in the overtly unfortunate chapter of His Majesty’s disastrously adventurous marital life.

Inarguably, Henry FitzRoy was doomed to the tragedy of oblivion because of the very bed of roses wherein his life was founded. Though a bastard, held disgraceful in talk, stare and thought behind the Great Harry’s back – he was the most fortunate of all his royal siblings ; his mother was not divorced off to seditious poverty nor had she walked through the Tower’s infamous Watergate, the traditional portal of the condemned, to await an appointment with the headman’s axe.[33] Neither did she succumb to a frozen heartbeat in neglect during her childbed fever. Bessie Blount might have been discarded but never disregarded. True, her child was born a bastard, but he was never made one by the Henrician Parliament, disinherited of his birthrights: title, property, family and friends. None of them witnessed the fatal turns of the Wheel of Fortuna, for they were kept graciously on the spikes that lavished in salacious luck. Stripped of the admired hallmark of ‘struggle and victory’ that decked the reputation and personality of the later Tudor monarchs, both mother and son went down in the memory of Time as the Fate besotted pawns of Henry VIII’s more successful ‘liaison’.

“The Most Happy” yet the most silent…


END NOTES

[1] Showtime & Peace Arch Entertainment – The Tudors (Season 1 Episode 5) [2008].

[2] Weir, Alison. Mary Boleyn: The Great and Infamous Whore [2012].

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

[6] Fraser, Antonia. The Six Wives of Henry VIII [1992].

[7] Fiorillo, Jure. Great Bastards of History: True and Riveting Accounts of the Most Famous Illegitimate Children Who Went To Achieve Greatness [2010].

[8] Hutchinson, Robert. Young Henry: The Rise of Henry VIII [2012].

[9] Fiorillo, Jure. Great Bastards of History: True and Riveting Accounts of the Most Famous Illegitimate Children Who Went To Achieve Greatness [2010].

[10] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Elizabeth Blount.

[11] Hutchinson, Robert. Young Henry: The Rise of Henry VIII [2012].

[12] Ibid.

[13] Showtime & Peace Arch Entertainment – The Tudors (Season 1 Episode 4) [2008].

[14] Hutchinson, Robert. Young Henry: The Rise of Henry VIII [2012].

[15] Weir, Alison. The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn [2010].

[16] Dr. Lucy Worsley and Dr. Catherine Hood. National Geography Channel (Documentary Video) – Inside the Body of Henry VIII [2008].

[17] Hutchinson, Robert. Young Henry: The Rise of Henry VIII [2012].

[18] Fraser, Antonia. The Six Wives of Henry VIII [1992].

[19] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

[20] Weir, Alison. The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn [2010].

[21] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Hobden, Heather. Tudor Bastard: Henry VIII’s son, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, and his mother Elizabeth Blount [2001].

[24] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Hobden, Heather. Tudor Bastard: Henry VIII’s son, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, and his mother Elizabeth Blount [2001].

[27] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

[28] Fraser, Antonia. The Six Wives of Henry VIII [1992].

[29] Weir, Alison. Mary Boleyn: The Great and Infamous Whore [2012].

[30] Ibid.

[31] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Illegitimate Children of Henry VIII.

[32] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

[33] Fiorillo, Jure. Great Bastards of History: True and Riveting Accounts of the Most Famous Illegitimate Children Who Went To Achieve Greatness [2010].


WORKS CITED

  • Text Reference
  1. Fraser, Antonia. The Six Wives of Henry VIII. London: – Orion Books Ltd. (A Phoenix Paperback), 1992. Print.
  2. Hobden, Heather – Tudor Bastard: Henry VIII’s son, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, and his mother Elizabeth Blount. Siberia: – The Cosmic Elk, 2001. Print.
  3. Fiorillo, Jure. Great Bastards of History: True and Riveting Accounts of the Most Famous Illegitimate Children Who Went To Achieve Greatness. Beverly, Massachusetts: – Fair Winds Press, 2010. Print.
  4. Weir, Alison. The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn. London: – Vintage Books, 2010. Print.
  5. Weir, Alison. Mary Boleyn: The Great and Infamous Whore. London: – Vintage Books, 2012. Print.
  6. Hutchinson, Robert. Young Henry: The Rise of Henry VIII. London: – Orion Books Ltd. (A Phoenix Paperback), 2012. Print.
  • Web Reference
  1.  Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Elizabeth Blount.
  2. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.
  3. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia – Illegitimate Children of Henry VIII.
  • Video Reference
  1. Showtime & Peace Arch Entertainment – The Tudors: Season 1 [Drama Television Series] (2008).
  2. National Geographic Channel – Inside the Body of Henry VIII [Documentary Video] (2008).

Advertisements

1 Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s